Overview An exploration ofpolitical traditions and their usage in explanations of British politics. This book includes an evaluation of both classical and critical approaches to the British Political Tradition. It also analyses more recent uses of political tradition by Bevir, Rhodes and Marquand. The United Kingdom does not have a single legal system due to it being created by the political union of previously independent countries with the terms of the Treaty of Union guaranteeing the continued existence of Scotland's separate legal system.
Recent constitutional changes saw a new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom come into being in October that took on the appeal functions of the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords. Both English law, which applies in England and Wales , and Northern Ireland law are based on common-law principles. The essence of common-law is that law is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent stare decisis to the facts before them. The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the highest court in the land for both criminal and civil cases in England , Wales , and Northern Ireland and any decision it makes is binding on every other court in the hierarchy.
Scots law, a hybrid system based on both common-law and civil-law principles, applies in Scotland. The chief courts are the Court of Session , for civil cases, and the High Court of Justiciary , for criminal cases.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom serves as the highest court of appeal for civil cases under Scots law. Sheriff courts deal with most civil and criminal cases including conducting criminal trials with a jury, known that as Sheriff solemn Court, or with a Sheriff and no jury, known as Sheriff summary Court. The Sheriff courts provide a local court service with 49 Sheriff courts organised across six Sheriffdoms.
The use of the first-past-the-post to elect members of Parliament is unusual among European nations. The use of the system means that when three or more candidates receive a significant share of the vote, MPs are often elected from individual constituencies with a plurality receiving more votes than any other candidate , but not an absolute majority 50 percent plus one vote.
Elections and political parties in the United Kingdom are affected by Duverger's law , the political science principle which states that plurality voting systems , such as first-past-the-post, tend to lead to the development of two-party systems. The UK, like several other states, has sometimes been called a "two-and-a-half" party system, because parliamentary politics is dominated by the Labour Party and Conservative Party, while the Liberal Democrats, used to, hold a significant number of seats but still substantially less than Labour and the Conservatives , and several small parties some of them regional or nationalist trailing far behind in number of seats, although this changed in the general election.
No single party has won a majority of the popular vote since the Third National Government of Stanley Baldwin in On two occasions since World War II — and February — a party that came in second in the popular vote actually came out with the larger number of seats.camchat.stagcms.com/whatever-happened-to-lucy.php
The British political tradition and the material-ideational debate | EQUELLA
Electoral reform for parliamentary elections have been proposed many times. Under this proposal, most MPs would be directly elected from constituencies by the alternative vote , with a number of additional members elected from "top-up lists. The general election resulted in a hung parliament no single party being able to command a majority in the House of Commons. This was only the second general election since World War II to return a hung parliament, the first being the February election. The Conservatives gained the most seats ending 13 years of Labour government and the largest percentage of the popular vote, but fell 20 seats short of a majority.
The Conservatives and Liberal Democrats entered into a new coalition government , headed by David Cameron. Under the terms of the coalition agreement the government committed itself to hold a referendum in May on whether to change parliamentary elections from first-past-the-post to AV. Electoral reform was a major priority for the Liberal Democrats, who favour proportional representation but were able to negotiate only a referendum on AV with the Conservatives.
The coalition partners campaigned on opposite sides, with the Liberal Democrats supporting AV and the Conservatives opposing it. The referendum resulted in the Conservative's favour and the first-past-the-post system was maintained. Since the s the two main political parties in the UK, in terms of the number of seats in the House of Commons , are the Conservative and Unionist Party and the Labour Party.
The Scottish National Party has the second largest party membership,  but a smaller number of MPs as it only fields candidates for constituencies in Scotland. The modern day Conservative Party was founded in and is an outgrowth of the Tory movement or party, which began in The modern Liberal Party had been founded in as an outgrowth of the Whig movement or party which began at the same time as the Tory Party and was its historical rival as well as the Radical and Peelite tendencies.
The Liberal Party was one of the two dominant parties along with the Conservatives from its founding until the s, when it rapidly declined in popularity, and was supplanted on the left by the Labour Party, which was founded in and formed its first minority government in Since that time, the Labour and Conservative parties have been dominant, with the Liberals later Liberal Democrats being the third-largest party until , when they lost 49 of their 57 seats, they now hold 12 seats.
Currently the Scottish National Party is the third largest party and have been since the General Election when they gained 56 seats. Founded in , the SNP advocates Scottish independence and has had continuous representation in Parliament since At the most recent general election in , the Conservatives, although increased their share of the vote; lost their overall majority in the House of Commons after previously commanding a majority for two years between However, the Conservatives did manage to gain 12 new seats in Scotland, as well as retaining the one seat from the previous election.
This was the best Conservative Party result in Scotland since the general election. The Conservative Party won the largest number of seats at the general election, returning MPs plus the Speaker's seat, uncontested, bringing the total MPs to , enough for an overall majority, and went on to form the first Conservative majority government since the general election.
The Conservatives won only seats at the general election, but went on to form a confidence and supply deal with the DUP Democratic Unionist Party who got 10 seats in the House of Commons, allowing the Conservative Party to remain in government. The Court Party soon became known as the Tories , a name that has stuck despite the official name being 'Conservative'.
The term "Tory" originates from the Exclusion Bill crisis of - the Whigs were those who supported the exclusion of the Roman Catholic Duke of York from the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland, and the Tories were those who opposed it. Generally, the Tories were associated with lesser gentry and the Church of England, while Whigs were more associated with trade, money, larger land holders or "land magnates" , expansion and tolerance of Catholicism.
The Rochdale Radicals were a group of more extreme reformists who were also heavily involved in the cooperative movement. They sought to bring about a more equal society, and are considered by modern standards to be left-wing. After becoming associated with repression of popular discontent in the years after , the Tories underwent a fundamental transformation under the influence of Robert Peel , himself an industrialist rather than a landowner, who in his " Tamworth Manifesto " outlined a new "Conservative" philosophy of reforming ills while conserving the good.
Though Peel's supporters subsequently split from their colleagues over the issue of free trade in , ultimately joining the Whigs and the Radicals to form what would become the Liberal Party , Peel's version of the party's underlying outlook was retained by the remaining Tories, who adopted his label of Conservative as the official name of their party. The Conservatives were in government for eighteen years between —, under the leadership of the first-ever female Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher , and former Chancellor of the Exchequer John Major — Their landslide defeat at the general election saw the Conservative Party lose over half their seats gained in , and saw the party re-align with public perceptions of them.
The Conservatives lost all their seats in both Scotland and Wales, and was their worst defeat since After thirteen years in opposition, the Conservatives returned to power as part of a coalition agreement with the Liberal Democrats in , going on to form a majority government in The Conservative Party is the only party in the history of the United Kingdom to have been governed by a female Prime Minister. This resulted in the merger between the Conservatives and Joseph Chamberlain's Liberal Unionist Party , composed of former Liberals who opposed Irish home rule. The unionist tendency is still in evidence today, manifesting sometimes as a scepticism or opposition to devolution, firm support for the continued existence of the United Kingdom in the face of movements advocating independence from the UK, and a historic link with the cultural unionism of Northern Ireland.
The Labour Party won the second-largest number of seats in the House of Commons at the general election, with seats overall. The history of the Labour Party goes back to , when a Labour Representation Committee was established and changed its name to "The Labour Party" in After the First World War , this led to the demise of the Liberal Party as the main reformist force in British politics. The existence of the Labour Party on the left-wing of British politics led to a slow waning of energy from the Liberal Party, which has consequently assumed third place in national politics.
After performing poorly at the general elections of , and , the Liberal Party was superseded by the Labour Party as being the party of the left. Following two brief spells in minority governments in and —, the Labour Party won a landslide victory after World War II at the " khaki election "; winning a majority for the first time ever.
Throughout the rest of the twentieth century, Labour governments alternated with Conservative governments. The Labour Party suffered the "wilderness years" of — three consecutive general election defeats and — four consecutive general election defeats. During this second period, Margaret Thatcher , who became Leader of the Conservative Party in , made a fundamental change to Conservative policies, turning the Conservative Party into an economically liberal party.
At the general election , she defeated James Callaghan 's Labour government following the Winter of Discontent. For all of the s and most of the s, Conservative governments under Thatcher and her successor John Major pursued policies of privatisation , anti- trade-unionism , and, for a time, monetarism , now known collectively as Thatcherism. The Labour Party elected left-winger Michael Foot as their leader in , and he responded to dissatisfaction within the Labour Party by pursuing a number of radical policies developed by its grassroots members.
Politics of the United Kingdom
In , several centrist and right-leaning Labour MPs formed a breakaway group called the Social Democratic Party SDP , a move which split Labour and is widely believed to have made the Labour Party unelectable for a decade. The SDP formed an alliance with the Liberal Party which contested the and general elections as a pro-European, centrist alternative to Labour and the Conservatives. After some initial success, the SDP did not prosper partly due to its unfavourable distribution of votes by the First-Past-The-Post electoral system , and was accused by some of splitting the Labour vote.
Support for the new party has increased since then, and the Liberal Democrats often referred to as Lib Dems gained an increased number of seats in the House of Commons at both the and general elections. The Labour Party was defeated in a landslide at the general election , and Michael Foot was replaced shortly thereafter by Neil Kinnock as party leader.
Kinnock progressively expelled members of Militant , a far left group which practised entryism , and moderated many of the party's policies. Despite these changes, as well as electoral gains and also due to Kinnock's negative media image, Labour was defeated at the and general elections, and he was succeeded by Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer , John Smith.
He continued to move the Labour Party towards the "centre" by loosening links with the unions and continuing many of Margaret Thatcher's neoliberal policies. This coupled with the professionalising of the party machine's approach to the media, helped Labour win a historic landslide at the general election , after eighteen consecutive years of Conservative rule. Some observers say the Labour Party had by then morphed from a democratic socialist party to a social democratic party, a process which delivered three general election victories but alienated some of its core base; leading to the formation of the Socialist Labour Party UK.
A subset of Labour MPs stand as joint Labour and Co-operative candidates due to a long-standing electoral alliance between the Labour Party and the Co-op Party - the political arm of the British co-operative movement.
At the general election , 42 candidates stood using the Labour and Co-operative Party ticket,  of which 24 were elected. This was an increase of 50 MPs on the result achieved in The SNP has enjoyed parliamentary representation continuously since After the Scottish parliamentary election, the SNP won enough seats to form a majority government, the first time this had ever happened since devolution was established in Members of the Scottish National Party and Plaid Cymru work together as a single parliamentary group  following a formal pact signed in This group currently has 39 MPs.
The Liberal Democrats won the joint-fourth largest number of seats at the general election, returning 12 MPs. The Liberal Democrats were founded in by an amalgamation of the Liberal Party with the Social Democratic Party, but can trace their origin back to the Whigs and the Rochdale Radicals who evolved into the Liberal Party.
The term ' Liberal Party ' was first used officially in , though it had been in use colloquially for decades beforehand.
A changing democracy: the British political tradition has never been more vulnerable
The Liberal Party formed a government in and then alternated with the Conservative Party as the party of government throughout the late-nineteenth century and early-twentieth century. The Liberal Democrats are a party with policies on constitutional and political reforms, including changing the voting system for general elections United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum , abolishing the House of Lords and replacing it with a member elected Senate, introducing fixed five-year Parliaments, and introducing a National Register of Lobbyists.
They also support what they see as greater fairness and social mobility. In the coalition government, the party promoted legislation introducing a pupil premium - funding for schools directed at the poorest students to give them an equal chance in life. Founded in by Ian Paisley , it has grown to become the larger of the two main unionist political parties in Northern Ireland.
Plaid Cymru has enjoyed parliamentary representation continuously since and had 4 MPs elected at the general election. Following the Welsh Assembly elections, they joined Labour as the junior partner in a coalition government, but have fallen down to the third-largest party in the Assembly after the Assembly elections, and have become an opposition party. It also has seats in the European Parliament , two seats on the London Assembly and around local councillors.
They campaign mainly on issues such as reducing immigration and EU withdrawal. The Respect party, a left-wing group that came out of the anti-war movement had a single MP, George Galloway from , and again between There are usually a small number of Independent politicians in parliament with no party allegiance.
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In modern times, this has usually occurred when a sitting member leaves their party, and some such MPs have been re-elected as independents. Since , only two new members have been elected as independents without having ever stood for a major party:. In May the party lost its last elected representative a local councillor.
The Libertarian Party was founded in and has contested several local elections and parliamentary constituencies. The English Democrats was founded in and advocates England having its own parliament. The party's candidate was elected mayor of Doncaster in , before resigning from the party in February The Brexit Party was founded in January It will contest the European Parliament election in the United Kingdom.
Several local parties contest only within a specific area, a single county, borough or district. The most notable local party is Health Concern , which controlled a single seat in the UK Parliament from to The Jury Team , launched in March and described as a "non-party party", is an umbrella organisation seeking to increase the number of independent members of both domestic and European members of Parliament in Great Britain.
The OMRLP are distinguished by having a deliberately bizarre manifesto , which contains things that seem to be impossible or too absurd to implement — usually to highlight what they see as real-life absurdities. It is effectively regarded as a satirical political party. After winning the largest number of seats and votes in the general election, the Conservatives first under David Cameron and now under Theresa May remain ahead of the Labour Party, led by Jeremy Corbyn since September The SNP has maintained its position in Scotland, the party was just short of an overall majority at the Scottish parliamentary elections in May However a turbulent referendum on the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union, called for by David Cameron, led to his own resignation, the appointment of a new prime minister Theresa May, and divided opinion on Europe amongst the party.
In addition, the EU referendum campaign plunged the Labour Party into crisis and resulted in a motion of no confidence in the party leader Jeremy Corbyn being passed by the party's MPs in a vote,  which followed a significant number of resignations from the Shadow Cabinet. This was won by Jeremy Corbyn with an increased majority.
He went on to lead the Labour party at the election, where they gained 30 seats. Following the vote to leave the European Union, Nigel Farage offered his own resignation as leader, something he had campaigned for since A leadership contest also took place in the Green Party, which led to the joint election on 2 September of Jonathan Bartley and Caroline Lucas as co-leaders, who took over the role in a job-share arrangement.
Strategic cross-party alliances have been initiated, including a " progressive alliance " and a "Patriotic Alliance",   as proposed by UKIP donor Aaron Banks. All political parties have membership schemes that allow members of the public to actively influence the policy and direction of the party to varying degrees, though particularly at a local level. The table below details the membership numbers of political parties that have more than 5, members. The UK is divided into a variety of different types of Local Authorities , with different functions and responsibilities.
England has a mix of two-tier and single-tier councils in different parts of the country. In Greater London , a unique two-tier system exists, with power shared between the London borough councils, and the Greater London Authority which is headed by an elected mayor. The UK's membership in the Union has been a major topic of debate over the years and has been objected to over questions of sovereignty,  and in recent years there have been divisions in both major parties over whether the UK should form greater ties within the EU, or reduce the EU's supranational powers.
Opponents of greater European integration are known as " Eurosceptics ", while supporters are known as "Europhiles". Division over Europe is prevalent in both major parties, although the Conservative Party is seen as most divided over the issue, both whilst in Government up to and after , and between those dates as the opposition.
However, the Labour Party is also divided, with conflicting views over UK adoption of the euro whilst in Government — British nationalists have long campaigned against European integration. In March , Parliament decided to not hold a referendum on the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon , signed in December After the referendum, it was debated as to how and when the UK should leave the EU.
On 11 July , the Cabinet Office Minister, John Penrose failed to deliver a final answer on whether it would be at the disposal of the Prime Minister and one of the Secretaries of State , through the Royal prerogative , or of Parliament , through primary legislation. In October the Conservative Prime Minister , Theresa May , announced that Article 50 would be invoked by "the first quarter of ". Consequently, the European Union Notification of Withdrawal Act empowering the prime minister to invoke Article 50 was passed and enacted by royal assent in March From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The parliamentary rebellion is embodied by John Bercow, the hyperarticulate, pugnacious speaker of the House of Commons, a nonpartisan position. The son of a used-car salesman from North London, Mr. Bercow entered Parliament in , and with his working-class background , he stood out among the elite Etonians of the Conservative Party.
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A longtime advocate on behalf of backbenchers, Mr. Bercow last week scandalized traditionalists by allowing one of these junior lawmakers to put forward for vote an amendment — which passed — that required Mrs. Such permission had not been granted in decades, and many British newspapers were indignant, describing Mr.
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