Latin a military trumpt used by the ancient Romans, consisting of a large tube of bronze, surrounded by seven smaller pipes, terminating at a single point. Indigenous Australian music that a particular clan may share, songs about the clan or about family history. Indigenous Australian music from which this information has been taken. Two corded bead beaters strike the heads when the drum is spun.
Hebei clapper opera came into being in the early nineteenth century and at its most popular, was performed on the same stage with Peking Opera, thus adopting also the repertoire of Peking Opera apart from the more traditional Shanxi and Shenxi clapper opera repertoire.
The classification of roles is more or less similar to that of the Peking Opera, only that Hebei clapper opera requires the actor to incorporate the art and skill of the role of jing , the role symbolizing strength and power in fighting, thinking or scheming, and sbeng , the role of scholar, statesman and the like. English, German only plural form a percussion instrument, formed of a pair of sticks, that traditionally accompanies the didgeridoo.
French to bang, to slam, to snap, to crack, to conk out, to snuff it, to blow gave a , to tire out. Bishop, producing a thick, powerfully, flute-like sound, the pipes being made of wood and not stopped. Its octave above, at 4 ft. Many medieval recipes recommend clarifying honey by combining it with wine. Heckel, and first used in to replace the Holztrompete in Wagner's Tristan and Isolde ; the clarina is a cross between an oboe and a clarinet. The lower end flares out into a bell. The clarinet is a very popular woodwind that originated in Islamic and Asian countries at least years ago.
Modern clarinets are made of ebony and have 20 or more side holes to produce different pitches. With a clarinet, you can play as softly as a whisper, but also loudly enough to be heard above an entire orchestra. Because it has a range of more than three octaves, it can produce both very low and very high notes. Within 40 years, they were regularly featured in works by Baroque composers Gluck, Telemann and Rameau.
The flexibility of the clarinet and its extraordinary ability to blend with other instruments appealed to many European orchestral and chamber music composers, especially during the late nineteenth century. The last innovator in the history of the clarinet was Hyacinthe Klose. In he invented what has since become known as the 'Boehm System' clarinet. The system is named after Theobald Boehm who invented a system for the flute by placing holes in the proper acoustical positions.
He also invented a series of ring keys by which a finger can close a ring when covering a whole, and by doing so operate another key to cover a different hole of some distance. Auguste Buffet's needle springs were soon added to the clarinet in , finishing the basic elements of the modern clarinet system. Sonatina in F major for Piccolo Clarinet, Op. Swiss folk musicians usually play with a button accordion tuned in Bb, and so they too use the clarinet in Bb.
There are two instruments that fall into this category: octocontra-alto clarinet also known as octo contra alto, sub contra alto, or octocontralto and the octocontrabass clarinet also known as octo contrabass clarinet, octo contra bass clarinet, or subcontra bass clarinet. Heckel's clarina, an instrument partaking of the nature of both oboe and clarinet, replaced the Holztrompete in Wagner's Tristan und Isolde and has done so ever since.
A saxonette is a soprano clarinet in C, A, or Bb that has both a curved barrel and an upturned bell, both usually made of metal. It has the approximate overall shape of a saxophone, but unlike that instrument it has a cylindrical bore and is therefore categorized as a clarinet.
The instrument is also known as the Claribel and Clariphon. Other than the barrel and bell, there is no difference between a saxonette and a soprano clarinet of the same fingering system. In fact, some manufacturers sold instruments having both clarinet- and saxonette-style barrels and bells. Eb Alto clarinet, doubling as Bb clarinet - alternative transpositions of parts needed since we may not have an Alto available. Portuguese m. The system has more keys than the Boehm system and is used mostly in Germany and Vienna.
Clarinette d'amour from which this short extract has been taken. High grade metal clarinets possess a specific mellowness and retain the true clarinet tone, their principal characteristic is clarity. The overtones are exceptionally well defined, the high notes are perfectly in tune and especially easy to play. Some notes on metal clarinets by Eberhard Kraut from which this short extract has been taken. Sometimes the upper octave is composed of open flue pipes. Three 'strengths' are normally used by major orchestras:. Clash cymbals. So, notes are named independently of their octave by their 'pitch-class' and intervals are named independently of tonal concepts such as major, minor, etc, by their 'interval-class'.
French to classify, to grade by merit , to file papers , to close deal, matter, business, case. Without any qualification, the usual meaning of 'classical music' in the English language is 'European classical music' an older usage describes specifically the Western art music of the Classical Music Era. It can also refer to the classical or art music of non-Western cultures such as Indian classical music or Chinese classical music. Latin, antiquus , literally 'old' the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus c.
The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts, literature, philosophy, and politics. Concepts of the classical, however, changed greatly from one period to the next. Roman literature provided the starting point in the fourteenth century, scholars patiently finding, editing and translating a wide range of texts. In the fifteenth century, Greek literature, philosophy and art - together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration.
This type of notation is standard for classical guitar. It can be complex to read, especially when writing both melody and accompaniment on one single staff. Lead guitar lines are best notated this way. Classic guitar technique from which this short extract has been taken.
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The central norms of this tradition, according to one school of thought, developed between and , focusing on what is known as the common practice period. The term classical music did not appear until the early nineteenth century, in an attempt to "canonize" the period from Bach to Beethoven as an era in music parallel to the golden age of sculpture, architecture and art of classical antiquity from which no music has directly survived. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about Since that time the term has come in common parlance to mean the opposite of popular music.
Classical music from which this extract has been taken. Classical Music Humour. Classical period in Western music occurred from about through , despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. Although the term classical music is used as a blanket term meaning all kinds of music in this tradition, it can also occasionally mean this particular era within that tradition. The Classical period falls between the Baroque and the Romantic periods.
Beethoven is also regarded either as a Romantic composer or a composer who was part of the transition to the Romantic; Franz Schubert is also something of a transitional figure. The period is sometimes referred to as Viennese Classic, since Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, and Schubert all worked at some time in Vienna. Classical period music from which this extract has been taken.
Vaudeville singers brought a professional quality to it and constructed the foundation for 'classic blues' which became popular among newly arrived African Americans in cities such as Chicago, Detroit, and New York. Freed of its 'religious' connotations it began to be perform in theatres, clubs, dance halls, and vaudeville shows.
The History of Blues Music from which this information has been drawn. Its peak period was the early to mid s.
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Classic metal from which this extract has been taken. In the United States, this rock music format now features a limited playlist of songs ranging from late s through today with more emphasis on the earlier hits by artists associated with the loosely-defined "classic rock era". Classic rock from which this extract has been taken. Classification of the Arts. Many of these instrument have a place outside the classroom too and this classification tells us more about how music is taught in the classroom than about the instruments themselves. Catalan f. Viewers turned their backs on the landscape they wanted to admire and viewed it instead in the mirror.
The glass softened the detail in the landscape, evened out the colours, and thus transformed the view into one more closely resembling that of the neoclassical painter Claude Lorrain. Some models included additional glasses with different coloured foil backings which would be chosen to simulate seasonal variations as well as those of different times of day or night, for example, in moonlight.
Latin, literally 'conclusion' a short clause forming the conclusion of a period in Latin prose. One unifying feature is that the upper voices in both forms are written in the same style. Both forms employ melismas, albeit to different extents. Sometimes features from the two genres blend together in one piece. In the three-part conductus Si membrana esset celum , the melisma is based entirely on plainsong.
This would be done in the same manner in a clausula. On the other hand, entire sections of clausulae are sometimes inserted directly into the fabric of conducti suggesting these two genres have more in common than was originally believed. Musical Borrowings from which this comment has been taken. The five-note, two-bar rhythmic pattern which generates rhythmic measurement, is the foundation and backbone of salsa and all Afro-Cuban based music.
The clave rhythm pattern la clave in Spanish is therefore embedded in all parts of a piece, from vocals to violins, whether the instrument called claves is actually played or not in the latter case termed 'implied clave' [additional information by Michael Zapf]. Often remembered by the catch phrase 'shave-and-a-haircut, six-bits'.
Experiments with tangent- and hammer-action instruments go back as far as Henri Arnaut de Zwolle's treatise of c. Pianoforte from which this extract has been taken. Portuguese f. G clef, treble clef, violin clef, chiave di violino Italian f. The larger of the two sticks is called the hembra and the smaller macho. One clave is cupped loosely in the hand and is struck with the other.
The clave are used widely in Latin America, and are most popular in Cuba. The usual rhythm played on the claves is called clave [additional information by Michael Zapf]. Claves Latin-American Instruments. Latin coloured lines used by Guido d'Arezzo to signify the pitch of notes, and which continued in use until the invention of clefs. Reproduction of a Clavicembelo, Stearns Collection, United States, The Clavicylinder was a redesign of Robert Hookes 'musical cylinder' or 'string phone'.
In July Hooke produced an experiment to determine the number of vibrations a stretched string made in a determinate time, for a given note. He found that "a Wire making two hundred seventy two vibrations in one second of time sounded G Sol Re Vt. Hooke had shown that middle C had beats a second. The term, which was first used by Sebastian Virdung in his Musica Getutscht , actually refers to a range of upright harpsichords.
Most of the surviving clavicytheria come from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Although the instrument was built in various places in Europe, its use was never widespread, and no standard method of building the instrument developed that would parallel those established by Ruckers or Taskins. Nevertheless, van deer Meer distinguished two main traditions of clavicytherium building: the upright harpsichord, as described by Praetorius , Bonanni , Adlung , and others; and the upright keyed harp, as described by Virdung The latter, with its smaller soundboard and softer sound, was particularly popular in Italy, although it was also mentioned in theoretical writings by Mersenne and Kircher Review by David Chung from which this extract has been taken.
Thomas Donahue. Lanham, Md. The instrument was supposed to be a keyboard, with notes corresponding to colours as given by Scriabin's synaesthetic system. Scriabin spontaneously recognized red, yellow, and blue, and derived the rest of his system from mapping the visible colour spectrum onto the circle of fifths. Light organ from which this extract has been taken. Bach's second wife, Anna Magdalena [entry corrected by Michael Zapf].follow link
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Every third variation is a canon, with the interval of imitation progressing from a unison first canon to the ninth last canon ; other variations explore a wealth of keyboard figurations and forms e. It is essentially an electronically amplified clavichord, analogous to an electric guitar. Its distinctive bright staccato sound has appeared particularly in funk and rock songs, for example, Stevie Wonder's original recording of Superstition. Clavinet from which the extract above has been taken.
The flue pipes, reed pipes, and plucked strings as well as other possibilities permitted all the different sounds of a complete Renaissance instrumental ensemble to be realised on a single instrument. Claviorgan, ascribed to Servatius Rorif, Tirol or Augsburg , between and from which the extract above has been taken. Drake and the other by Kirkman. Although 'clawhammer' and 'frailing' are both terms that are widely used by players, the difference between the two is not clear and there have been many debates over the precise meanings of each term.
Clawhammer from which the extract above has been taken. Clean with water and mild soap. Paint stirrers can be used to liquify clay in a separate container before brushing. The treble clef, represented by a stylized letter G, shows the position of G a fifth above middle C for which reason it is said to be a G clef ; the bass clef, represented by a stylized letter F, the position of F a fifth below middle C for which reason it is said to be an F clef ; and, the alto clef, represented by a stylized letter C, the position of middle C for which reason it is said to be a C clef.
The percussion clef does not indicate pitch - rather each line and space on the staff indicates a different percussion instrument. The clef sign always appears at the beginning of every staff line and in the first bar measure if a change of clef occurs. Change of clef signs are usually written smaller than normal clefs. French violin or French clef, chiave di violino francese Italian f. The staff line marked with the doh clef establishes which line is doh , and similarly when a fah clef is used.
Modern music, by contrast, uses the C, F, and G clefs, which have a similar purpose in setting the relative pitch of the rest of the staff lines. Summary of Clef Signs Clef. Latin from the Greek a water clock used by Chinese and Romans, to which the Romans sometimes attached a bell, thus making their clocks the first to chime. Starting off as a small workhouse factory with 30 'inmates', making yarn and mops, it later became a hospital and nursery and finally a school. German slick, crafty, craftily, cunning, shrewd, savvy colloquial , astute, adroit mentally , clever.
Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click.
Glitch music from which this extract has been taken. The other track of the tape consists of a click used by the musical director to keep the live band and cast synchronised with the recorded band or cast. More recently, this technique has been used by the six-member a cappella group The Kings Singers to record the part motet Spem in Alium by Thomas Tallis It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action.
The musician might perform an entire piece, or demonstrate certain techniques for the audience to observe. The objective is for the audience to learn from the guest musician. Clinic music from which this extract has been taken. French, possibly from the Dutch klinken to clink or ring, specifically applied to the ringing noise that gold pieces make when they clink together in a purse. For instance, the word auto as in "auto shop" is a clipped form of automobile. It is pronounced like an affix, but works at the phrase level.
For example, the English possessive -'s is a clitic; in the phrase the girl next door's cat, -'s is phonologically attached to the preceding word door while grammatically combined with the phrase the girl next door, the possessor. Clitics may belong to any grammatical category, though they are commonly pronouns, determiners, or adpositions. A clitic that precedes its host is called a proclitic. A clitic that follows its host is called an enclitic.
A mesoclitic appears between the stem of the host and other affixes. Clitic from which this extract has been taken. Latin for bell, from which Klok Dutch , Glocke German , Cloche French , all meaning 'bell' the same root also gives us the word 'cloak' meaning 'bell-shaped'. During the 18th- and 19th-centuries the puritanical revivals in Wales almost wiped out many forms of folk culture, and especially traditional dance. However the popularity of clogging's combination of infectious rhythms with dynamic style kept this traditional alive and it continues to thrive and evolve. The main difference between Welsh clogging and other Celtic and American styles of solo percussive dance, is that Welsh dancers wear wooden clogs, and not merely hard shoes.
The sole and heel of a Welsh clog are carved from one piece of wood, to form a shaped "platform"under the whole foot, onto which the leather upper is fixed, giving it the appearance of a normal shoe. However the sole does not bend, creating different movements for the feet, and different possibilities for percussive additions to the music. Like American clogging, the Welsh include a variety of energetic "feats"or "tricks", and each clogger is eager to show off his own dexterity and inventiveness. Welsh clogging commonly includes steps such as a Cossack-style kicking squat called the "Toby" , or high jumping, jumping over a bezum broom, or even trying to snuff out a lighted candle with his feet during the dance.
Harrison Cowlishaw was her architect. The design included an open colonnade to the south for open air sleeping. Two wings: one for kitchen and store rooms, the other with cubicles and dressing rooms leading to an oval open-air swimming bath. A small community developed dedicated to Theosophy. It became the base for the Alpha Union set up by J. Bruce Wallace of the Brotherhood Church, who organised summer schools and residential courses. In turn, the more conclusive clos or chiuso corresponds to the seconda volta or second-time bar.
Closed captions typically display a transcription of the audio portion of a program as it occurs either verbatim or in edited form , sometimes including non-speech elements. Closed captioning from which this extract has been taken. Closed change. Close harmony.
For example, a C7 chord voiced in close position might be C - E - G - Bb , refered to as root position, since the root, C , is at the bottom, or E - G - Bb - C , which is called first inversion, since the bottom note has been inverted to the top, or G - Bb - C - E , called second inversion, or Bb - C - E - G , called third inversion. If any note is placed one octave up or down from the 'close' position the chord is said to be in 'open position'. Note particularly that if the second note from the top is dropped, the voicing is called a drop 2 voicing; if the third note from the top is dropped, the voicing is called a drop 3 voicing.
Latin clausura , 'a closing' closure can mean a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work - especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Literary Terms and Definitions from which these entries have been taken. Pure harmony. Named after the French trading post in India, this nostalgic blend of several whole-leaf Indian teas has a round and smooth flavour.
With or without milk. A sensuous journey to Southern Africa. For generations, a family plantation known for the quality of its teas sits nestled at 1,m in altitude, in a territory with infinite natural resources, sustained by a climate marked by the rainy season from November to March.
A fragrance recalling lotus flower is crowned by a hint of candied citron. The liquor resonates with notes of roasted pear and cocoa imbued with a dash of tonka bean. Southern Africa splendour. A eulogy to tea. This poetic blend combines mild, subtle teas from China, Formosa, and Japan to create a suave, harmonious cup that is slightly sweet and fragrant. For relaxing moments. Delicious and refreshing. Situated to the north of Kurseong on Tiger Hill, this garden founded in soaks in the beneficent virtues of the Moon.
A perfume of wild orchid under the morning dew marries a sweet note of fresh walnut. A fruity-flowery fragrance of apricot introduces a silky, creamy sensation of vanilla ganache. The gourmet cup is aroused by a zesty burst of bergamot while the finale is punctuated by a persistent brume of vetiver. Joie de vivre in Darjeeling. Garden in the process of becoming organic The confidential garden of Pandam, not far from Darjeeling Town, rises to 1,m in altitude where the magnificent hundred-year-old tea bushes flood the panorama with a thousand shades of green.
Today, this fabulous tea rightly earns its noble title thanks to this extraordinary harvest. The buds and young leaves evoke powdery green porcelain, speckled with silver tips. A delicious note of safflower is scored with a hint of orange blossom biscuit. A luminous aroma of green almond blends with a sweet floral scent of Muscatel and fern. The amber liquor drapes the palate with an airy, persistent fragrance evoking the sweetness of custard apple married to the freshness of white magnolia flower.
Silky with a very pleasant texture, the liquor is sustained by a creamy richness recalling pecan enlivened with a dash of green orange. The celebrated garden of Namring was created in by the British. Cultivated at 1, meters in altitude, this cru is harvested from the oldest parcel of land known as Poomong, absolutely magnificent and prestigious.
A pruning in autumn, ample sunlight and pure water from the Himalayas provokes an early formation of buds and hence the crafting of this grand millesime. The supple leaves exhale a rich fragrance of passion fruit and green papaya. The liquor expresses notes of golden hazelnut married to delicious candied starfruit, accented with a gourmet dash of pineapple.
Enchanting and delicate. They hold three blended teas that one can prepare at any moment of the day. The liquor unleashes warm and reassuring tones, sustained by smooth, generous flavours. For bright mornings and beautifully successful days. This blend is composed of discreetly scented high-grown teas. A noble tea. Its fragrance evokes the spices and atmosphere of the French East India Company in the seventeenth century—an aromatic voyage through time and space.
A mild tea with delightful taste. A sensual, flowery aura recalling genepi and violet hypnotise the taster before turning to an elegant wisp of almond milk. The liquor mesmerises with remarkably rich sensations and voluptuous perfumes of precious incense and rare vanilla. An irresistible aromatic impression of camellia honey blends with the unexpected vivacity of red fruit and sugar-apple. A premium taste. In Japan, the best time for strawberries is in December and so it is this delicious fruit, in all of its delightful forms, that one has the pleasure of offering during the holidays.
A beautiful blend of Japan and France. This prestigious appellation distinguishes itself by its majority of centenary tea plants giving flavourful harvests. A quintessential must-have in the confidential world of premium teas. The last sips offer a nectar whose notes of vanilla and airy green cardamom and tonka bean linger long on the palate.
Two canisters of tea in a black presentation case - two ways of discovering new realms of taste, colour and joint pleasures. Shimmering, and mysteriously gourmand. The gourmet notes flood the palate with a bouquet of wild angelica. A precious offering. Volptuous candied tamarind precedes a flowery composition of young lily-of-the-valley and Damascus rose water. A handsome note of honey scored with a hint of woody cedar echoes with an infinite persistence unique to this sensual tea.
An intense and addictive beauty. On preserved land and surrounded by orange groves, these century-old tea plants deliver the magical harvests sought after by afficionados of prestigious First Flush Darjeelings. A fresh and cool atmosphere expands with heart notes eliciting Muscatel grape and mountain apple, enhanced by a draught of pearly white gardenias. The sharp fruitiness of lychee and blood peach ride along flowery waves of precious edelweiss. A superior first flush. Welcome to the new world!
The liquor submerges the palate in round and enveloping notes like brown caramel while a woody-vanilla tone emerges blending together iris and black licorice. Gourmet and sensual, the cup is moved by aromas of buckwheat honey with nuances of blackcurrant glaze and the subtle airiness of flavourful coconut.
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The finale is scored with a dash of persistent, powdery rose. The beauty of nature. The large, handsome, deep-black leaves exhale notes of prune confiture. Traditional almond flavoured tea. LOVE STORY is a beautiful declaration of love for France — its joie de vivre, its gastronomy, its romantic charm — in the form of a seductive gourmet black tea with accents of velvety, fruity and flowery notes. A velvety wedding of black teas, dotted with jasmine flowers. Light and fragrant. Tea and Cocoa make for astonishing new flavours!
The young ebony-coloured leaves, married to bits of roasted cocoa bean, deliver a delicious aroma of praline. The finale soars on a chocolatey note of grilled hazelnut in this tastefully irresistible fusion! As surprising as it is unique, this tea is cultivated in a place of indescribable beauty; straddling the vertiginous slopes of the Andean mountains in the heart of the cocoa plantations, the tea leaves develop incredibly subtle aromas, both intense and fruity.
These teas are the result of a sustainable agriculture on exceptionally pure lands, nourished by crystal clear waters flowing down from the snowy summits. Les Belles Lettres, Publication: Paris, G. L'Imaginaire, Catalogue des richesses, amertume. Une condition humaine, mais avec des formules artistiques de Renaissance Impuissance des hommes. Jean Giono, Avertissement , Gallimard, coll. L'entreprise date du printemps et dura non cinq jours, mais un peu plus de deux mois.
Publication: Gallimard, Mort d'un personnage Conception: septembre mars Publication: Revue de Paris , juin-juillet Bernard Grasset, mars Un roi sans divertissement Conception: automne Un roi sans divertissement sera un contre-pied des Vraies richesses , et rien ne marque mieux la distance que Giono prend avec son oeuvre d'avant la guerre Giono n'explique pas. Tout est faux. Maintenant, allons-y. Ici seul le romancier, au fond, existe, et son roman n'existe pas: il n'est pas racontable. Publication: dans plusieurs revues entre et Publication: Gallimard, janvier Publication: Gallimard, mai Le Hussard sur le toit Conception: octobre avril Publication: Gallimard, novembre Deux cavaliers de l'orage Conception: Un tournant dans l'oeuvre de Giono Le roman baigne dans le sang.
On voit des choses extraordinaires dans le sang.
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Un curieux livre, qui par plusieurs aspects tranche sur le reste de l'oeuvre. Rien d'un journal de voyage consciencieux. En soixante pages sur Venise, il ne mentionne ni Titien ni Tintoret. Bref vers la vie quotidienne que gouverne un art de vivre. Il s'invente des amis inexistants. L'homme qui plantait des arbres Conception: Hortense ou l'Eau vive Conception: mai-septembre Giono n'y est pour rien.
Related Une passion citron vert (Prelud) (French Edition)
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