Return to Book Page. Peter C. How can parents and teachers most effectively support the language development and academic success of deaf and hard-of-hearing children? Will using sign language interfere with learning spoken language? Should deaf children be placed in classrooms with hearing children?
Are traditional methods of teaching subjects such as reading and math to hearing children appropriate f How can parents and teachers most effectively support the language development and academic success of deaf and hard-of-hearing children? Are traditional methods of teaching subjects such as reading and math to hearing children appropriate for deaf learners?
As many parents and teachers will attest, questions like these have no easy answers, and it can be difficult for caring adults to separate science from politics and fact from opinion in order to make informed decisions about how to help deaf children learn. In this invaluable guide, renowned authorities Marc Marschark and Peter Hauser highlight important new advances in scientific and educational research that can help parents and teachers of students with significant hearing loss.
The authors stress that deaf children have strengths and needs that are sometimes very different from those who can hear. Consequently, if deaf students are to have full academic access and optimal educational outcomes, it is essential that parents and teachers learn to recognize these differences and adjust their teaching methods to them.
Marschark and Hauser explain how the fruits of research conducted over the last several years can markedly improve educational practices at home and in the classroom, and they offer innovative strategies that parents and teachers can use to promote learning in their children. The result is a lively, accessible volume that sheds light on what it means to be a deaf learner and that provides a wealth of advice on how we can best support their language development, social skills, and academic success.
Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages. More Details Other Editions 2. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about How Deaf Children Learn , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about How Deaf Children Learn. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Feb 13, James Carter rated it it was amazing. How Deaf Children Learn is as neutral as it gets when it comes to the presentment of evidence based information in terms of what's best for deaf children.
It is actually a nice treatment, but if you are going to find answers, chances are you will end up feeling disappointed or nonplussed. I am actually glad to see that neither signing nor speaking is better than one another. Both have their uses, and both serve their purposes very well.invest.old.nordstreet.com/ethical-investor.php
How Deaf Children Learn
But to think one without the other, it's impossible. It hel How Deaf Children Learn is as neutral as it gets when it comes to the presentment of evidence based information in terms of what's best for deaf children. It helps to have both in the arsenal, and I should know. The authors came very, very close to settling this question but didn't. This is a new research proposal. Some became teachers for the deaf, some of them even founded schools for the deaf themselves, including the very first school for the deaf in Finland, and there were founders of deaf associations; one became a highly recognized marine painter and so on SVARTHOLM, a.
The basis for this early, remarkably successful deaf education can be summarized by its two interdependent components: recognition of the need for sign language in the lives of deaf people alongside with a great faith in the abilities of the deaf. The importance of these components becomes evident when comparing this period with later periods of deaf education, both in Sweden and in other countries, when oralism took over as the dominating philosophy.
Rejecting sign language and showing a fundamentalist attitude towards deaf people who were taken as deficient, without speech skills, were their hallmarks. For a deeper understanding of the advantages that the use of sign language in deaf education entails, it is important to understand some of the linguistic properties of signed languages and the implications of them for its users.
Swedish sign language, i. Other words used for characterizing natural sign languages are that they are 'visual-spatial'. This means a focus on not only the perception of these languages but also on a very typical feature of their linguistic organization, their so called spatiality.
The three-dimensional space in front of the signer is actually used in different ways for expressing linguistic information. Manually expressed signs can be directed to different intended positions in that space; gaze and the posture of the head, among others, can also 'point' to those positions. Another characteristic feature of signed languages is that they permit much more simultaneously produced information than what spoken languages do. For instance, linguistic information can be added to a signed sequence by adding specific mouth movements or by moving the eyebrows with the manual signs.
What is often thought of as 'a lively mimicry' by non-signers when they watch sign language users is in fact an additional layer of linguistic information. Those complex structural and organizational differences between spoken and signed languages entail that it is impossible to use the two types of languages simultaneously. It is not possible to express more complex linguistic information as in full sentences and longer, coherent linguistic entities in this way.
The linguistic organization differs too much between the languages. There is also another obstacle for those who wish to speak and sign simultaneously, namely the lexical differences between the languages involved. For Swedish and Swedish sign Language, for instance, there is no one-to-one relationship between words and signs: sometimes one word corresponds to several signs and sometimes one sign corresponds to several words. It may function to some degree for very short, simple messages such as the ones used to very small children but not for any fuller communication.
The lack of one-to-one relationship between the languages leads typically to an inconsistent and thus also a quite confusing linguistic input for the deaf language learner, i. Of course the situation is different for those deaf persons who already know the languages involved - signs used simultaneously with speech can then be used as a support for lip-reading, as a tool for communication. But for actual language learning this kind of activity does not work very well. Interaction and learning. The interactive, communicative setting in the classroom is of course very important for any child's learning, whether hearing or deaf.
It is out of meeting language, understanding information presented in diverse linguistic forms and from using language oneself that development takes place, which is linguistic as well as cognitive. Increasing complexity of the language used is important for this development as well. The older the child grows the more the needs grow for a language that works for more complex and advanced functions.
These functions include using language for such things as arguing, for discussing abstract matters, for making hypotheses and for testing these hypotheses, for generalizing, for drawing conclusions and so on. Every child in class should have access to fully perceptible and intelligible language, whether produced by the teacher or by the classmates.
Such access is a prerequisite for learning from participation in dialogue with others and for actively negotiating meaning with others at a more advanced level. For enhancing the opportunities for deaf children's participation in dialogue and group discussions with others, the teacher needs some basic insights about requirements for successful, visually based communication. To begin with, the teacher must know strategies for efficient, visually based teaching. Simple, practical rearrangements of chairs and tables might be necessary for securing that all children in class can see each other and thus also communicate with each other.
Another external, physical factor is the lighting of the room - a signing mate who has the light from behind could be very difficult to perceive LISSI et al. But fostering effective participation in group discussions requires more than just physical adaptation of the classroom. Actual training is also required. The rules for turn-taking in group communication are different among sign language users than among users of spoken languages, due to the needs for visual access to the signed messages.
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Thus, eye contact is needed and so are the markers for who wants to join the discussion and when this taking of the turn in the dialogue is accomplished and so on. Awareness of such requirements for smooth functioning group communication must be made clear and recalled over and over again by the teacher and among the students themselves SVARTHOLM et al. Using sign language fluently and establishing a supporting environment for its use in class could undoubtedly be characterized as the basis for adequate deaf education. However, this is not enough for fostering the students to become bilinguals, it is not even enough for a school or a program to call itself 'bilingual'.
For this, much more is needed. In the bilingual school or program the students must get the opportunity to learn their second language from proper second language teaching. It was mentioned above that linguistic, contrastive work was central in the Swedish bilingual approach from the very beginning. Such work presupposes that the teacher not only has basic knowledge about the two languages and their structures and typical features, but that he also has linguistically based pedagogical and methodological training for accomplishing this kind of work in class.
As it also has been pointed out above, the focus is on written language in teaching the deaf their second language, simply because deaf children cannot use their hearing efficiently for language learning. This means that learning the language cannot be differentiated from learning to read the language; the two processes coincide and are intertwined. Strategies for building up reading competence out of texts should be provided by the teacher and by the explanations and translations offered. Awareness of recurrent text structures and text schemes seems to be useful for the language learner for developing efficient 'reading', i.
Text structures, schemes and other tools for genre recognition can thus be regarded as guidelines for the learner in this search for meaning LISSI et al. Another aspect of language teaching in deaf education concerns teaching and learning a third language. As mentioned above, English is a 'core' school subject in Sweden, both in the regular school and in the special schools for the deaf. In Sweden just as in many other countries, English has a prominent position beside the official language -s , not least within business and higher education.
It also plays the role of a 'Lingua Franca', a language for communication across language barriers in international settings and for international contacts. Learning English is as important for the deaf as for hearing people. Sign Language Users - Now and Tomorrow. The group of sign language users is undergoing a great change today.
The majority of sign language users in Sweden are in fact hearing themselves - parents, siblings, relatives, teachers, assistants, etc. There are also Codas Children of Deaf Adults and interpreters, and people that have learned sign language out of merely a genuine interest in the language. It is a reasonable guess that the ratio is about hearing persons that know sign language to every signing deaf person in Sweden.
- UC Berkeley.
- How Deaf Children Learn : What Parents and Teachers Need to Know;
- Questions parents ask: A guide for professionals.
- How Deaf Children Learn: What Parents and Teachers Need to Know /;
- How Deaf Children Learn by Marc Marschark, Peter C. Hauser | Waterstones!
- Reiki-Lehrerin (German Edition);
Thus, the deaf themselves are indeed already a minority among signers. In the next future, profoundly deaf sign language users will be in an even more obvious minority position, due to cochlear implants, CIs. Today, in Sweden, there are very few deaf children - in fact only a handful - in the preschool ages that do not have a technical hearing device of this kind. In the Swedish legislation, it is stated that '[ The need for sign language and bilingualism in children with cochlear implants was especially emphasized in the proposal that preceded this law: 'These children should They need sign language for all life situations in which, despite CIs, their hearing cannot cope' SOU , transl.
There are many parents that recognize this need, but there are also many that keep to a 'wait-and-see' attitude. The same holds true for parents to children with cochlear implants. Some find it important to provide their children with opportunities to learn sign language early in life and other parents prefer not to do it but wait. So, we know very little about who the sign language users will be in the future. It is reasonable, though, to expect that many of its users will encounter sign language quite late in life and that they will have at least some hearing out of using either conventional hearing aids or from cochlear implants.
Many of them will probably manage reasonably well with spoken language, but they can nevertheless be expected to have a need for sign language as a complement to speech. Children with Cochlear Implants - some words about their need for bilingualism.
Raising a Deaf Child: A Parent’s Perspective | SpeakEasy
Sometimes one can face claims about sign language as something negative for children with cochlear implants and that bilingualism that includes sign language is not optimal for raising these children linguistically. Instead, signing skills are supposed to 'destroy' speech and interest for speech in the child. This view was prevalent also in Sweden among medical doctors and others during the first years of surgery on deaf children. However, to begin with a policy issued by the health and welfare authorities demanded that sign language communication should be established in the family before implantation PREISLER, From a systematic literature review in which more than 1, international scientific references were studied, a Norwegian research team found that there were in fact no studies at all reflecting 'real' bilingual communication among children with cochlear implants, i.
The objective of the study, to identify eventual negative effects of communication mode with special focus on sign language, could thus not be fulfilled. Click to view More Deaf children -- Means of communication. Deaf children -- Language. Deaf -- Education. Parents of deaf children.
Content Types A limited number of items are shown. Click to view More Electronic books. Series Perspectives on Deafness Physical Details 1 online resource p. Summary How can parents and teachers most effectively support the language development and academic success of deaf and hard-of-hearing children? Will using sign language interfere with learning spoken language?
Related How Deaf Children Learn: What Parents and Teachers Need to Know (Perspectives on Deafness)
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