Auer ; Lenz a. PP03 aims at answering the following questions: How are the varietal spectra of German structured with regard to rural areas in Austria? Lenz a on the dialect-standard axis, or is it possible to draw a distinction between different varieties? Which implicational hierarchies or co-occurrence restrictions between variants can be detected? To this end, a variety of elicitation methods e.elearning.gau.ge/demonlover.php
2 Development of FRAKIS – a German adaptation of the toddler CDI
This project part breaks new ground in variationist linguistics and sociolinguistics for Austria as it is the first major urban language study in this country. The research programme is based on the following core questions: From the perspective of variationist linguistics, what constitutes urban varieties as opposed to varieties in more rural settings? From a socio-pragmatic point of view, what influences language behaviour and the choice of varieties, registers, styles or variants used in big cities?
To what extent do dialects or other non-standard varieties influence urban varieties? What are the orientation norms within urban communication settings?
Sprachentwicklung – Sprachkultur – Sprachkritik: Erwägungen zum heutigen und künftigen Deutsch
These questions finally shall be answered by way of 1 an analysis of discourse data of current language use in the agglomeration areas of Vienna and Graz of speakers with and without migration background , 2 an analysis of preferred variants or groups of variants with respect to the interaction of various speaking styles and varieties, and 3 an analysis of connections between spatial and social mobility and language behaviour.
The empirical basis of all three project parts in task cluster B provides multivariate data, collected from different locations rural versus urban and different social groups with various survey methods. This task cluster focuses on the following core questions: What are the sociolinguistic and contact linguistic connections between historical multilingualism and the current situation of language s in Austria?
What language repertoires and patterns of language attitudes have emerged in the context of multilingualism in Austria? What is the significance of institutional especially educational language guidelines and how are they implemented? In this context, the policies of public institutions administrative, judiciary and especially educational systems are juxtaposed to the effects and the recognisable diversity of multilingualism, which obviously exists despite institutional attempts to regulate language.
During the 19 th century, German held a hegemonic position in the Habsburg state as the language of the state power and the culturally dominant elites. Whereas the non-German-speaking nationalities of the Habsburg state attempted to redefine their status by demanding recognition of their languages and cultures, German-dominated state nationalism tried to re-establish its endangered hegemony by granting linguistic and cultural autonomy to the various ethnic groups.
Thus, the main motivation of PP05 is to shed light on how German was used as an instrument of social interaction and as a reference point of cultural construction. Based on the current state of research in historical sociolinguistics, socio-pragmatically informed language historiography and research on historical multilingualism 14 and by means of reanalyses of existing data and critical discourse analyses of official documents, journals and newspapers, the following central questions are addressed: How can the investigation of historical multilingualism deepen our understanding of polycentric Austrian German in the Second Republic?
What lessons can be learned from the historical context for German and multilingualism in present-day Austria? The motivation of this project part arises from the fact that the agglomeration area of Vienna represents a major linguistic contact area in Central Europe, influenced by the languages spoken in the Habsburg Empire. Due to substantial migration from what is now the Czech Republic, a micro-area emerged during the 19 th century that was particularly affected by Czech-German language contact.
Newerkla , Thus, the main goal of PP06 is to arrive at a comprehensive overview and detailed analysis of contact-induced Slavic influences on the varieties of German in Austria over time, especially in the urban area of Vienna. The close contacts between German in Austria and the Slavic languages spanning several centuries have most probably led to linguistic similarities on all language levels. Do language myths or other misconceptions about the outlined contact situation exist and how can they be unveiled?
Can we identify any comparable, distinct or universally applicable aspects of language contact in this area? The empirical basis to discuss these questions is supplied by the comprehensive collection, classification and critical linguistic assessment of existing data as well as the collection of new, present-day data. This research design provides an unprecedented and linguistically well-grounded corpus of factual contact-induced Slavic influences on the varieties of German in Austria over time.
Moreover, it helps to uncover widespread language myths and refute false assumptions with respect to these phenomena, e. Task cluster D focuses on the following questions, which are systematically related to one another, but also reveal how the project parts are interconnected with task cluster B and C: What attitudes towards German in Austria and its varieties, registers and styles, as well as towards other languages exist in Austria?
How do speakers perceive their own possible linguistic actions and how do they cognitively structure and valorise them?
What consequences of these relationships can be found at the institutional level, such as in schools? These questions are addressed on the basis of comprehensive empirical studies using various quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and data analysis. The studies are carried out with monolingual and multilingual informants of different language biographies and socio-demographic backgrounds.
PP08 collects and analyses data from all over the country, whereas PP10 concentrates on data from selected regions and on urban-rural differences in these regions. Auer must take into account objective linguistic facts see esp. Lenz a, b. An overview of European research reveals that frequently only one of these two levels is taken into consideration in research on standard languages, and that is predominantly the level of linguistic structure.
Garrett is also reflected in an increasing number of studies which do not only focus on the perception of non-standard varieties and variants, but take into account the entire spectrum of varieties, including standard languages. The research questions that the project part aims to answer can be grouped into four categories: 1 concepts of language variety and language ideologies, 2 variants from an attitudinal-perceptual perspective, 3 patterns of language attitudes, and 4 attitudinal-perceptual dynamics.
Some of the core research questions are:. Which social values are attributed to which variants and which processes of enregisterment cf. Agha ; Auer are based on these attributions? The topic of PP10 is how Austrian students and also their teachers perceive different L1- and L2-based accents of German in Austria, how they perceive varieties of German in Austria and what their attitudes towards them are.
Thus, the project not only aims at analysing language perceptions, but also at reconstructing ideas about and notions of language variation, which undoubtedly form part of the linguistic reality at schools in Austria today. Although there is a considerable and increasing number of studies on the role of linguistic diversity in schools cf. Edwards , research in the German-speaking countries has to date either concentrated on the role of dialects and other varieties of German at schools 19 or on the impact of external multilingualism in the classroom. PP10 tries to find answers to the following research questions: How do teachers and students report on language use in various domains and situations at school and in their life outside the school gates?
What importance do students assign to which variety and which language in school and later on? What are their views on the use and covert prestige of varieties of German and other languages?
Which social meanings do they attribute to different varieties? Perceptions of spoken and written varieties are measured by way of ratings of speech samples from native speakers of varieties of German in Austria and from native speakers of non-German varieties. Attitudes towards different accents and varieties of German and non-German languages are elicited by way of online-questionnaires and in group discussions.
Central assumptions of the subproject are that language perceptions and language attitudes are in a reciprocal relationship and that, in combination, they can have an influence on the evaluation of linguistic and other cognitive skills of students in schools. Given the scale of transnational migration as well as internal migration, which both have a strong impact on the school sector in Austria at present, it is expected that the results of the project will have an impact both on teacher training and on language policies at Austrian schools.
They can provide information on future requirements for teaching as well as on necessary modifications to language policies at schools. Apart from establishing a computer-linguistic foundation and from providing support in the processes of data modelling and corpus-linguistic annotations, the main task of PP11 is the development of the SFB research platform, which will be accessible online not only for scientists but also for the interested public.
Computational modelling and the annotation of linguistic data is the scientific approach used for corpus-based variationist linguistics. European and international research infrastructures have been established in recent years in order to facilitate corpus linguistic research in the context of digital humanities cf. Moulin et al. Declerck et al. Linguistic annotation cf.
As for the sociolinguistic study of linguistic variation and change, corpus linguistic methods have gained a central role for quantitative as well as qualitative research cf. Baker ; Kiesling The innovative aim of task cluster D is to reach a new qualitative level of collaborative research by further developing, testing, fine-tuning and implementing a comprehensive linguistic annotation framework on the basis of the international standards that have been elaborated by the Text Encoding Initiative TEI and by the International Standards Organisation ISO.
Furthermore, it aims at embedding this methodology into an operational online research platform. Thus, the goal of PP11 is to design, implement and use a collaborative platform that facilitates coherent and interoperable modelling, processing, annotation and the focused empirical use of specific language corpora that either pre-exist or are to be created in the context of the subprojects of the SFB.
To this end, different case scenarios are modelled and described for which the Collaborative Online Research Platform is used. Thus, it has been and is essential to build this platform out of different components to support the entire research life circle. Specific query functions are needed to search the corpora and other data, since researchers must be able to query complex data structures and relationships.
Therefore, the query functions should be able to make multiple layer queries cf. Moreover, visualisation of linguistic data such as in language maps , sorting and selecting of the query results are made possible. The collective working space also fulfils the needs of researchers to be able to collaboratively annotate, edit and analyse data, to discuss preliminary results with peers etc. Furthermore, the collaborative working space integrates project management tools or project management functions setting deadlines, monitoring progress etc.
What is the added value of such a large-scale project in relation to the mere sum of the individual project parts? In this SFB, both the object language with its structural aspects and the sociolinguistic level in its narrowest sense, i. The SFB takes into consideration the entire spectrum of German in Austria including its multifarious dimensions of variation e.
As a consequence, the project analyses not only the entire range of regional linguistic varieties on the dialect-standard axis dialects, regiolects, standard varieties , but also the linguistic repertoires and variation displayed in the communicative behaviour of individuals and groups. Rather, it aims at a comprehensive analysis of complex contact situations between varieties of German as well as between such varieties and the non-German heritage languages in Austria, both synchronically and diachronically or rather panchronically, cf. Central to the SFB is a panchronic and dynamic approach, where there is no strict distinction between synchrony and diachrony, but only variation and continuous change which presupposes variation.
By means of triangulation and a combination of different approaches, both established and innovative methods of qualitative and quantitative data collection, handling, analysis and presentation are used. Gender as a social variable plays an essential role in the sampling of informants as well as in the sociolinguistic analyses. One practical outcome of the SFB will be a plethora of diverse data.
Moreover, as it is a major concern of the project that its results are made available to a wider public, non-sensitive data such as dialect maps, mental maps and anonymised speech samples, will be made available to the public. The SFB is a joint project in the field of humanities and it constitutes the first occasion on which six institutes and departments across Austria from three universities and the Austrian Academy of Sciences join efforts to collaborate on documenting and researching the German language in Austria.
The scope and complexity of the topic, i. Agha, Asif : The social life of cultural value. In: Language and Communication 23, 3—4, — Berlin et al. Anders, Christina A. Neue Wege der Dialektologie. Auer, Peter : Phonologie der Alltagssprache. Sociolinguistic, Historical, Comparative. Auer, Peter : Enregistering pluricentric German. But he rejected the idea that these structures were themselves already a kind of logical grammar from which a Philosophical Grammar could directly be deduced.
Therefore, the comparative study of the languages required some new kind of Universal Grammar to serve as tertium comparationes for the linguist not to lose himself in endless and aimless comparisons. Hence he replaced the traditional principles with a radically different conception that he had derived from his work in comparative anatomy at Jena in Once established, through a combination of philosophical-methodological reflection and concrete linguistic analysis, the linguistic prototype was to serve and did serve Humboldt as a guide and tertium comparationis for the study and comparison of different languages and language groups.
In short, the prototype is not to be seen as an object, a list of specific surface structure features, nor does it resemble any existing actual language, but instead stands for the communality of elements, rules, and structures that underlie all language production. For example, the existence of phonetic elements in a given language, constituting a sound system Lautsystem and its individual word always combining a sound-unit with a thought-unit, must be understood as part of the prototypal nature of language, whereas the particular Lautsystem of that language as it resulted from its historical development becomes the subject of specific linguistic investigations.
Yet for Humboldt languages do not differ from each other as species Gattungen but as individuals; their character does not pertain to the species but to them as individuals as conditioned by and as a result of their own specific historical development GS Vol 6: There are some critical distinctions that Humboldt employs in his linguistic writings, which shed light on his understanding of language and the approach he follows in his empirical investigations.
Thus he distinguished sharply as did his contemporary Schleiermacher before Saussure and twentieth-century linguistics, between language Sprache and Speech Rede. Because language in its fullest sense occurs only in the societal context in its acts of speech production and in what is being said through them, its true nature can only be intimated and perceived in living discourse verbundener Rede and should be studied equally in its lasting manifestations in the works of culture and of science, in literature, poetry, and philosophy. Public Education and Politics 1.
General and Comparative Linguistics 2. Contours, Scope, and Categories 3. General and Comparative Linguistics Already in June he was able to submit to the Berlin Academy a bold plan for the creation of the new discipline of comparative linguistics and to outline the philosophy and methodology on which it was to be built in a paper entitled: Alexander von Humboldt said about his brother that it had been granted to him to penetrate more deeply into the structure of a larger number of languages as probably have ever been grasped by one human mind.
About this work the American linguist Bloomfield wrote: His starting point is the question: What makes it possible for an artist to produce aesthetic effects? Thinking consists for Humboldt in segmenting its own process, thereby forming whole units out of certain portions of its activity, and in setting these formations separately in opposition to one another, collectively, however, as objects, in opposition to the thinking subject. What constituted language, according to Saussure, was the somehow mysterious fact that the thought-sound implies the divisions which are the ultimate units of linguistics.
Werke , Albert Leitzmann ed. Politische Denkschriften , Bruno Gebhardt ed. Politische Briefe , Wilhelm Richter ed. For an overview of the plan and structure of this edition, see note 6. Appeared so far or about to appear, by part Abteilung and volume Band: Schriften zur Anthropologie der Basken , with introduction and commentary, Bernhard Hurch ed. Mexicanische Grammatik , with introduction and commentary, Manfred Ringmacher ed.
Sprache ist der Schlüssel zur Welt | German to English | Education / Pedagogy
Thoemmes Press, Essays on Language , T. Humboldt Urkunden und Umrisse , Albert Leitzmann ed. Presses universitaires du Septentrion. Wilhelm von Humboldt Briefarchiv. Verlag der Nation, DDR.
In Infants' Hands: Identification of Preverbal Infants at Risk for Primary Language Delay
In these three cases of nonagreement, the vote of an independent third coder decided the final categorization. All three coders were uninformed about the research question and the language status of the infants. The two groups index finger pointers vs. Data of all children were included as we did not find undue influence on the models in any case as indicated by Cook's distance smaller than 1 for all cases. RIOC incorporates the base rate and the selection rate of a developmental disorder and a screening.
The rationale behind is that screenings for developmental disorders with a low base rate, which randomly identifies all children as typically developed would reach high scores in specificity and accuracy and would thus be invalid. All 59 infants produced communicative pointing gestures during our assessments. The seminatural setting was most apt to elicit pointing. To determine the influence of imperative versus declarative pointing on language, we ran two simple regression analyses. Predictors were the mean number of pointing gestures per trial hand and index finger points in total in the imperative or declarative conditions.
Next, we were interested in testing whether the dichotomous variable of being an index finger pointer serves as valid identifier for children with primary language delay. To directly test whether early index finger pointing can serve as diagnostic predictor for emerging language delay, we compared index finger pointers to hand pointers on our linguistic measures. The index finger shape of pointing thus reflects advances in the child's communication and readiness for successful language acquisition which in turn results in better linguistic skills.
The hand shape of pointing was a better predictor of language development than the inferred communicative motives of pointing. Whereas pointing in the imperative and declarative conditions was predictive of language skills, there was no difference between the two conditions. Furthermore, our results showed that this effect was driven entirely by the index finger points in both conditions, not the hand points.
Instead, pointing in the imperative and declarative conditions equally predicted language acquisition supporting the assumption that the hand shape of index finger pointing is a conceptual landmark in the emergence of intentional referential communication, whereby different motives reflect differences in the pragmatic use but not in the communicative complexity Liszkowski, The result that pointing in the imperative condition was more frequent than in the declarative condition most likely reflects a difference in the motivation to point in these contexts.
One could argue that the assessment of motives is limited because it relies on the validity of the settings in which pointing is elicited. Although we could not conduct detailed prosodic analyses in the current study, our holistic impressions from the two experimental settings confirmed that infants accompanied their pointing with characteristics indicative of requests in the imperative condition or sharing of positive affect and interest in the declarative condition.
The results of this study are of clinical value.
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The setting of the decorated room may be especially apt for this: All but two index finger pointers used the index finger within the decorated room. This shows that this setting provides a highly efficient way of measuring infants' pointing behavior. This study may serve as an initial step in the development of a valid screening instrument that identifies children at risk for primary language delay before they have acquired a language, enabling an early intervention to mitigate the emergence of persistent language disorders.
Volume 88 , Issue 2. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.
Child Development Volume 88, Issue 2. Empirical Report Open Access. Electronic mail may be sent to E-mail address: carina. Angela Grimminger Bielefeld University Search for more papers by this author. Katharina J. Ulf Liszkowski University of Hamburg Search for more papers by this author. We are grateful to all families for participating in the study. The authors report no declarations of interest. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation.
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